TECHNICAL RESEARCH PAPERS

As a carbon black leader, Birla Carbon is focused on sharing the knowledge associated with the history, technology and growth of the industry for the benefit of all interested in learning, understanding and sharing the science and knowledge of carbon black. As part of this focus, Birla Carbon is making available to its readers and researchers, technical papers which include contributions from its scientists, both past and present.

The technical papers available below, present exhaustive information on fundamental properties, compounding and processing, dispersion, blends, conductivity and many other topics.

The papers have been published by Birla Carbon in ‘Rubber Chemistry and Technology’, an ACS Peer-Reviewed journal. Clicking any of the links will redirect you to the journal website, where you can view and/or download a copy of the paper. Birla Carbon, in collaboration with ‘Rubber Chemistry and Technology’, has ensured ‘Open Access’ to these documents.

By sharing this knowledge, at Birla Carbon, we believe we are living our Purpose to – Share the Strength!

For any clarifications, write to birlacarbon.communications@adityabirla.com

Carbon Black Fundamental Studies - English

Modeling the Equilibrium Compressed Void Volume of Carbon Black
Modeling the Equilibrium Compressed Void Volume of Carbon Black
Article Citation - George A. Joyce and William M. Henry (2006) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: November 2006, Vol. 79, No. 5, pp. 735-764   ...
Date PublishedNovember 1, 2006

Anisometry Measurements in Carbon Black Aggregate Populations
Anisometry Measurements in Carbon Black Aggregate Populations
Article Citation - Tyler C. Gruber and Charles R. Herd (1997) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: November 1997, Vol. 70, No. 5, pp. 727-746 ...
Date PublishedNovember 1, 1997

Evaluation of the External Surface Area of Carbon Black by Nitrogen Adsorption
Evaluation of the External Surface Area of Carbon Black by Nitrogen Adsorption
Article Citation - R. W. Magee (1995) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 1995, Vol. 68, No. 4, pp. 590-600.   ...
Date PublishedSeptember 1, 1995

Morphology of Carbon-Black Aggregates: Fractal Versus Euclidean Geometry
Morphology of Carbon-Black Aggregates: Fractal Versus Euclidean Geometry
Article Citation - Charles R. Herd, Gerard C. McDonald, and William M. Hess (1992) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: March 1992, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 107-129   ...
Date PublishedMarch 1, 1992

New Studies on the Surface Properties of Carbon Blacks
New Studies on the Surface Properties of Carbon Blacks
Article Citation - J. A. Ayala, W. M. Hess, A. O. Dotson, and G. A. Joyce (1990) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: November 1990, Vol. 63, No. 5, pp. 747-778.   ...
Date PublishedNovember 1, 1990

Improved Particle Size Measurements on Pigments for Rubber
Improved Particle Size Measurements on Pigments for Rubber
Article Citation - W. M. Hess and G. C. McDonald (1983) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: November 1983, Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 892-917.   ...
Date PublishedNovember 1, 1983

Specific Shape Characterization of Carbon Black Primary Units
Specific Shape Characterization of Carbon Black Primary Units
Article Citation - W. M. Hess, G. C. McDonald, and E. Urban (1973) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: March 1973, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 204-231.   ...
Date PublishedMarch 1, 1973

Carbon Black Morphology: I. Particle Microstructure. II. Automated EM Analysis of Aggregate Size and Shape
Carbon Black Morphology: I. Particle Microstructure. II. Automated EM Analysis of Aggregate Size and Shape
Article Citation - W. M. Hess, L. L. Ban, and G. C. McDonald (1969) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 1969, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 1209-1234   ...
Date PublishedSeptember 1, 1969

Microstructural Variations in Commercial Carbon Blacks
Microstructural Variations in Commercial Carbon Blacks
Article Citation - W. M. Hess, L. L. Ban, F. J. Eckert, and V. Chirico (1968) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: May 1968, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 356-372 ...
Date PublishedMay 1, 1968

High-Resolution Microradiography
High-Resolution Microradiography
Article Citation - W. A. LADD, W. M. HESS, M. W. LADD Publication - Science, 02 Mar 1956:, Vol. 123, Issue 3192, pp. 370-371 ...
Date PublishedMarch 2, 1956

Colloidal Carbon as Revealed by the Electron Microscope
Colloidal Carbon as Revealed by the Electron Microscope
Article Citation - William B. Wiegand and William A. Ladd (1942) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 1942, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 664-671   ...
Date PublishedSeptember 1, 1942

The Particle Size and Shape of Colloidal Carbon as Revealed by the Electron Microscope
The Particle Size and Shape of Colloidal Carbon as Revealed by the Electron Microscope
Article Citation - Columbian Carbon Company Research Laboratories (1941) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: March 1941, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 52-84 ...
Date PublishedMarch 1, 1941

    Compounding And Processing Of Carbon Black In Rubber - English

    The Processing of Filler-Reinforced Rubber
    The Processing of Filler-Reinforced Rubber
    Article Citation - E. S. Dizon and L. A. Papazian (1977) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 1977, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 765-779. ...
    Date PublishedSeptember 1, 1977

    Processing in an Internal Mixer as Affected by Carbon Black Properties
    Processing in an Internal Mixer as Affected by Carbon Black Properties
    Article Citation - E. S. Dizon (1976) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: March 1976, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 12-27   ...
    Date PublishedMarch 1, 1976

    Solution Masterbatching Studies
    Solution Masterbatching Studies
    Article Citation - C. E. Scott and F. J. Eckert (1966) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: July 1966, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 553-566 ...
    Date PublishedJuly 1, 1966

    Latex Compounding of GR-S
    Latex Compounding of GR-S
    Article Citation - H. F. O'Connor and C. W. Sweitzer (1944) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 1944, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 711-718   ...
    Date PublishedSeptember 1, 1944

      Dispersion Of Carbon Black In Rubber - English

      Carbon Black Dispersion Measurement in Rubber Vulcanizates via Interferometric Microscopy
      Carbon Black Dispersion Measurement in Rubber Vulcanizates via Interferometric Microscopy
      Article Citation - Archie P. Smith, Toni L. Aybar, Ricky W. Magee, and Charles R. Herd (2004) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 2004, Vol. 77, No. 4, pp. 691-710 ...
      Date PublishedSeptember 1, 2004

      Characterization of Dispersions
      Characterization of Dispersions
      Article Citation - W. M. Hess (1991) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: July 1991, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 386-449 ...
      Date PublishedJuly 1, 1991

      The Influence of Carbon Black, Mixing, and Compounding Variables on Dispersion
      The Influence of Carbon Black, Mixing, and Compounding Variables on Dispersion
      Article Citation - W. M. Hess, R. A. Swor, and E. J. Micek (1984) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: November 1984, Vol. 57, No. 5, pp. 959-1000 ...
      Date PublishedNovember 1, 1984

      Measurement of Carbon Black Dispersion in Rubber by Surface Analysis
      Measurement of Carbon Black Dispersion in Rubber by Surface Analysis
      Article Citation - P. C. Vegvari, W. M. Hess, and V. E. Chirico (1978) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 1978, Vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 817-839 ...
      Date PublishedSeptember 1, 1978

      Microscopy of Pigment-Elastomer Systems
      Microscopy of Pigment-Elastomer Systems
      Article Citation - W. M. Hess and F. P. Ford (1963) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: November 1963, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 1175-1229   ...
      Date PublishedNovember 1, 1963

      The Analysis of Pigment Dispersion in Rubber by Means of Light Microscopy, Microradiography, and Electron Microscopy
      The Analysis of Pigment Dispersion in Rubber by Means of Light Microscopy, Microradiography, and Electron Microscopy
      Article Citation - William M. Hess (1962) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: March 1962, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 228-249 ...
      Date PublishedMarch 1, 1962

        Carbon Black In Rubber Blends - English

        Characterization of Immiscible Elastomer Blends
        Characterization of Immiscible Elastomer Blends
        Article Citation - W. M. Hess, C. R. Herd, and P. C. Vegvari (1993) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: July 1993, Vol. 66, No. 3, pp. 329-375 ...
        Date PublishedJuly 1, 1993

        Elastomer Blend Properties—Influence of Carbon Black Type and Location
        Elastomer Blend Properties—Influence of Carbon Black Type and Location
        Article Citation - W. M. Hess and V. E. Chirico (1977) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: May 1977, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 301-326 ...
        Date PublishedMay 1, 1977

        Elastomer Blends. Compatibility and Relative Response to Fillers
        Elastomer Blends. Compatibility and Relative Response to Fillers
        Article Citation - J. E. Callan, W. M. Hess, and C. E. Scott (1971) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: July 1971, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 814-837 ...
        Date PublishedJuly 1, 1971

        Carbon Black Distribution in Elastomer Blends
        Carbon Black Distribution in Elastomer Blends
        Article Citation - W. M. Hess, C. E. Scott, and J. E. Callan (1967) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: May 1967, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 371-384 ...
        Date PublishedMay 1, 1967

          Dynamic Mechanical Properties Of Carbon Black Reinforced Rubber - English

          THIXOTROPIC FLOCCULATION EFFECTS IN CARBON BLACK–REINFORCED RUBBER: KINETICS AND THERMAL ACTIVATION
          Thixotropic Flocculation Effects In Carbon Black Reinforced Rubber Kinetics And Thermal Activation
          Thixotropic Flocculation Effects In Carbon Black Reinforced Rubber Kinetics And Thermal Activation Article Citation - Lewis B. Tunnicliffe Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology (2021)   ...
          Date PublishedJune 15, 2021

          Reinforcement of Rubber by Carbon Black and Lignin-coated Nanocellulose Fibrils
          Reinforcement of Rubber by Carbon Black and Lignin-coated Nanocellulose Fibrils
          Reinforcement of Rubber by Carbon Black and Lignin-coated Nanocellulose Fibrils Article Citation - Lewis B. Tunnicliffe, Kimberly Nelson, Shaobo Pan, John Curtis, Charles R. Herd Publication - Rubber Chemistry...
          Date PublishedDecember 2, 2020

          Carbon-Black-Elastomer Interaction II: Effects of Carbon Black Surface Activity and Loading
          Carbon-Black-Elastomer Interaction II: Effects of Carbon Black Surface Activity and Loading
          Article Citation - J. A. Ayala, W. M. Hess, G. A. Joyce, and F. D. Kistler (1993) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: November 1993, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 772-805   ...
          Date PublishedNovember 1, 1993

          Carbon-Black-Elastomer Interaction
          Carbon-Black-Elastomer Interaction
          Article Citation - J. A. Ayala, W. M. Hess, F. D. Kistler, and G. A. Joyce (1991) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: March 1991, Vol. 64, No. 1, pp. 19-39 ...
          Date PublishedMarch 1, 1991

          Carbon Black Morphology in Rubber
          Carbon Black Morphology in Rubber
          Article Citation - G. C. McDonald and W. M. Hess (1977) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 1977, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 842-862 ...
          Date PublishedSeptember 1, 1977

          The Effects of Carbon Black on Rubber Hysteresis
          The Effects of Carbon Black on Rubber Hysteresis
          Article Citation - J. D. Ulmer, W. M. Hess, and V. E. Chirico (1974) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 1974, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 729-757 ...
          Date PublishedSeptember 1, 1974

          Vulcanizate Performance as a Function of Carbon Black Morphology
          Vulcanizate Performance as a Function of Carbon Black Morphology
          Article Citation - K. A. Burgess, C. E. Scott, and W. M. Hess (1971) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: March 1971, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 230-248 ...
          Date PublishedMarch 1, 1971

          The Chemistry of Carbon Black in Rubber Reinforcement
          The Chemistry of Carbon Black in Rubber Reinforcement
          Article Citation - C. W. Sweitzer, K. A. Burgess, and F. Lyon (1961) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: July 1961, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 709-728 ...
          Date PublishedJuly 1, 1961

          The Rubber Pendulum, the Joule Effect, and the Dynamic Stress-Strain Curve
          The Rubber Pendulum, the Joule Effect, and the Dynamic Stress-Strain Curve
          Article Citation - W. B. Wiegand and J. W. Snyder (1935) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: June 1935, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 151-173 ...
          Date PublishedJune 1, 1935

            Failure Properties Of Carbon Black Reinforced Rubber - English

            Characterizing Distributions of Tensile Strength and Crack Precursor Size to Evaluate Filler Dispersion Effects and Reliability of Rubber
            Characterizing Distributions of Tensile Strength and Crack Precursor Size to Evaluate Filler Dispersion Effects and Reliability of Rubber
            Article Citation - Robertson, C.G.; Tunnicliffe, L.B.; Maciag, L.; Bauman, M.A.; Miller, K.; Herd, C.R.; Mars, W.V Publication - Polymers 2020, 12, 203   ...
            Date PublishedJanuary 13, 2020

            The Effect of Carbon Black Parameters on the Fatigue Life of Filled Rubber Compounds
            The Effect of Carbon Black Parameters on the Fatigue Life of Filled Rubber Compounds
            Article Citation - E. S. Dizon, A. E. Hicks, and V. E. Chirico (1974) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: March 1974, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 231-249 ...
            Date PublishedMarch 1, 1974

              Carbon Black In Tire Applications - English

              Carbon Black in NR/BR Blends for Truck Tires
              Carbon Black in NR/BR Blends for Truck Tires
              Article Citation - W. M. Hess, P. C. Vegvari, and R. A. Swor (1985) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: May 1985, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 350-382 ...
              Date PublishedMay 1, 1985

              The Effects of Carbon Black and Other Compounding Variables on Tire Rolling Resistance and Traction
              The Effects of Carbon Black and Other Compounding Variables on Tire Rolling Resistance and Traction
              Article Citation - W. M. Hess and W. K. Klamp (1983) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: May 1983, Vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 390-417 ...
              Date PublishedMay 1, 1983

              Performance of SBR and BR Tread Compounds as a Function of Carbon Black Dispersion, Surface Chemistry, and Structure
              Performance of SBR and BR Tread Compounds as a Function of Carbon Black Dispersion, Surface Chemistry, and Structure
              Article Citation - C. E. Scott and V. Chirico (1969) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: July 1969, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 700-713   ...
              Date PublishedJuly 1, 1969

              SBR and BR Tread Performance as a Function of Carbon Black Properties
              SBR and BR Tread Performance as a Function of Carbon Black Properties
              Article Citation - E. Micek, F. Lyon, and W. M. Hess (1968) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: November 1968, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 1271-1284   ...
              Date PublishedNovember 1, 1968

              Laboratory Tire Groove Cracking Test
              Laboratory Tire Groove Cracking Test
              Article Citation - Roy M. Vance and Kenneth A. Burgess (1968) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 1968, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 1080-1086 ...
              Date PublishedSeptember 1, 1968

              Re-agglomeration as a Cause of Tread Groove Cracking
              Re-agglomeration as a Cause of Tread Groove Cracking
              Article Citation - W. M. Hess and K. A. Burgess (1963) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: July 1963, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 754-776   ...
              Date PublishedJuly 1, 1963

                Sustainable Materials

                Reinforcement of Rubber by Carbon Black and Lignin-coated Nanocellulose Fibrils
                Reinforcement of Rubber by Carbon Black and Lignin-coated Nanocellulose Fibrils
                Reinforcement of Rubber by Carbon Black and Lignin-coated Nanocellulose Fibrils Article Citation - Lewis B. Tunnicliffe, Kimberly Nelson, Shaobo Pan, John Curtis, Charles R. Herd Publication - Rubber Chemistry...
                Date PublishedDecember 2, 2020

                  Miscellaneous - English

                  Computational Investigation of the Effects of Spherical Filler Morphology and Loading on Diffusion Tortuosity and Rubber Permeability
                  Computational Investigation of the Effects of Spherical Filler Morphology and Loading on Diffusion Tortuosity and Rubber Permeability
                  Article Citation - T. C. Gruber, S. D. Crossley, and A. P. Smith (2013) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: June 2013, Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 175-189 ...
                  Date PublishedJune 1, 2013

                  An Improved Wire Adhesion Test Method
                  An Improved Wire Adhesion Test Method
                  Article Citation - A. E. Hicks, V. E. Chirico, and J. D. Ulmer (1972) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: January 1972, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 26-48 ...
                  Date PublishedJanuary 1, 1972

                  Dual Inhibition-Acceleration Role of Carbon Black in Rubber Oxidation
                  Dual Inhibition-Acceleration Role of Carbon Black in Rubber Oxidation
                  Article Citation - F. Lyon, K. A. Burgess, and C. W. Sweitzer (1957) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: March 1957, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 114-121. ...
                  Date PublishedMarch 1, 1957

                  Inhibition of Rubber Oxidation by Carbon Black
                  Inhibition of Rubber Oxidation by Carbon Black
                  Article Citation - K. A. Burgess and C. W. Sweitzer (1956) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: March 1956, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 176-186 ...
                  Date PublishedMarch 1, 1956

                  Oxidation of Unvulcanized Rubber
                  Oxidation of Unvulcanized Rubber
                  Article Citation - F. Lyon, K. A. Burgess, and C. W. Sweitzer (1954) Publication - Effect of Carbon Black. Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 1954, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 695-704 ...
                  Date PublishedSeptember 1, 1954

                  Oxidation of Unvulcanized Cold Rubber Influence of Adsorption by Carbon Black
                  Oxidation of Unvulcanized Cold Rubber Influence of Adsorption by Carbon Black
                  Article Citation - C. W. Sweitzer and Francis Lyon (1952) Publication - Rubber Chemistry and Technology: September 1952, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 557-572   ...
                  Date PublishedSeptember 1, 1952

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